node-sass安装遇到的错误

本文记录MacOS Catalina环境下,Node版本升级到16.5.0之后,导致的node-sass不能使用,而更新安装node-sass失败问题的解决过程,以及在此过程中对于npm更加深入的了解,希望能够帮助到有同样困惑的同学。

前两天系统安装了 nmap 后,hexo new 新文章的时候就报下面的错误。

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INFO  Validating config
ERROR {
err: Error: Node Sass does not yet support your current environment: OS X 64-bit with Unsupported runtime (93)
For more information on which environments are supported please see:
https://github.com/sass/node-sass/releases/tag/v4.14.1
at module.exports (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/binding.js:13:13)
at Object.<anonymous> (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/index.js:14:35)
at Module._compile (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:1095:14)
at Object.Module._extensions..js (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:1124:10)
at Module.load (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:975:32)
at Function.Module._load (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:816:12)
at Module.require (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:999:19)
at req (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/hexo/lib/hexo/index.js:292:23)
at /Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/hexo-render-sass/dist/index.js:10:35
at /Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/hexo/lib/hexo/index.js:305:14
at tryCatcher (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/util.js:16:23)
at Promise._settlePromiseFromHandler (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/promise.js:547:31)
at Promise._settlePromise (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/promise.js:604:18)
at Promise._settlePromise0 (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/promise.js:649:10)
at Promise._settlePromises (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/promise.js:729:18)
at _drainQueueStep (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/async.js:93:12)
at _drainQueue (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/async.js:86:9)
at Async._drainQueues (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/async.js:102:5)
at Immediate.Async.drainQueues [as _onImmediate] (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/edulinks-blog/node_modules/bluebird/js/release/async.js:15:14)
at processImmediate (node:internal/timers:464:21)
} Plugin load failed: %s hexo-render-sass

看了一下本机 node 版本已经升级到了 v16.5.0。

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$ node --version              
v16.5.0

查看 node-sass 的版本是4.14.1,从 node-sass 的官方看到这个版本是不支持 node v16版本的,要从 node-sass 6.0.0 之后才开始支持。尝试安装最新版本的 node-sass 报错依旧,探索了几天觉得应该是 node-gyp 环境问题造成的。

node-gyp

gyp 是一个用来生成项目文件的工具,一开始是设计给 chromium 项目用的,生成项目文件后可以调用GCC、vsbuild、xcode等不通平台的编译工具进行编译。node 程序中需要调用一些其他语言编写的工具或dll,因此首先需要编译一下,否则会出现跨平台后无法正常使用的问题。

解题思路

通过查看 node-sass 官方页面介绍,基本明确是当前使用的 node-sass 版本无法在高版本Node下正常运行,因此需要升级 node-sass。升级 node-sass 又依赖 node-gyp 的更高版本。因此,依次升级 node-gyp 、node-sass 后本地的问题就解决了。为了验证解决问题的思路和方法,设计了两个场景来一步一步寻找定位问题的根本原因。

  • 场景一:初始化一个Hexo博客,尝试安装 hexo-renderer-sass看是否报错。搞明白npm install hexo-renderer-sass 的过程,看是哪个环境依赖导致的问题。
  • 场景二:初始化一个npm项目,安装并调用node-sass看是否报错,验证项目对node-sass引用情况。

随着越来越多的人将Node版本升级,使用到 hexo-renderer-sass 插件的朋友应该都会遇到这个问题,目前看到插件作者还没有更新的动态,后续我可能会提交一个 request 或创建一个新的hexo插件,来支持更高版本的Node。

场景一:问题复现

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$ hexo init test-blog
...
INFO Start blogging with Hexo!

看到成功信息后,使用 hexo server 检查能否正常打开页面。然后安装 hexo-renderer-sass 插件可以看到文章开头的报错。

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$ npm install --save hexo-renderer-sass
npm WARN old lockfile
npm WARN old lockfile The package-lock.json file was created with an old version of npm,
npm WARN old lockfile so supplemental metadata must be fetched from the registry.
npm WARN old lockfile
npm WARN old lockfile This is a one-time fix-up, please be patient...
npm WARN old lockfile
npm WARN deprecated har-validator@5.1.5: this library is no longer supported
npm WARN deprecated request@2.88.2: request has been deprecated, see https://github.com/request/request/issues/3142
npm ERR! code 1
npm ERR! path /Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/0806-test-blog/node_modules/node-sass
npm ERR! command failed
npm ERR! command sh -c node-gyp rebuild
npm ERR! gyp info it worked if it ends with ok
npm ERR! gyp info using node-gyp@3.8.0
npm ERR! gyp info using node@16.5.0 | darwin | x64
npm ERR! gyp ERR! configure error
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack Error: Command failed: /usr/bin/python3 -c import sys; print "%s.%s.%s" % sys.version_info[:3];
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack File "<string>", line 1
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack import sys; print "%s.%s.%s" % sys.version_info[:3];
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack ^
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack SyntaxError: invalid syntax
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack at ChildProcess.exithandler (node:child_process:397:12)
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack at ChildProcess.emit (node:events:394:28)
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack at maybeClose (node:internal/child_process:1067:16)
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack at Socket.<anonymous> (node:internal/child_process:453:11)
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack at Socket.emit (node:events:394:28)
npm ERR! gyp ERR! stack at Pipe.<anonymous> (node:net:672:12)
npm ERR! gyp ERR! System Darwin 19.6.0
npm ERR! gyp ERR! command "/usr/local/Cellar/node/16.5.0/bin/node" "/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/0806-test-blog/node_modules/.bin/node-gyp" "rebuild"
npm ERR! gyp ERR! cwd /Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/0806-test-blog/node_modules/node-sass
npm ERR! gyp ERR! node -v v16.5.0
npm ERR! gyp ERR! node-gyp -v v3.8.0
npm ERR! gyp ERR! not ok

此时本地的环境信息如下。

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$ node --version                       
v16.5.0
$ npm --version
7.20.2
$ node-gyp --version
v8.1.0
$ sass --version
1.35.2 compiled with dart2js 2.13.4

查看 package.json 显示对于 node-sass 的版本要求是 4.* 版本。Node升级到16版本以上之后,必须是node-sass 6.0以上的版本才支持。npm install 的时候,默认是从npmjs下载,但是作者没有更新这个版本依赖,因此想到将相关代码 fork 到我的仓库中,然后通过github安装。可以将 package.json 修改为下面

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"hexo-renderer-sass": "github:cocowool/hexo-renderer-sass",

然后重新执行 npm install 就可以正常安装了。

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npm http fetch GET 200 https://codeload.github.com/cocowool/hexo-renderer-sass/tar.gz/64987aa78f10d6622915bf4350407b238b1b0448 1110ms (cache miss)
npm timing reifyNode:node_modules/hexo-renderer-sass Completed in 1453ms
npm timing reify:unpack Completed in 1462ms
npm timing reify:unretire Completed in 1ms
npm timing build:queue Completed in 5ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/node-sass Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/nopt Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/node-gyp Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/sass-graph Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/rimraf Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/uuid Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/sshpk Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/normalize-package-data/node_modules/semver Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/node-gyp/node_modules/semver Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link:node_modules/read-pkg/node_modules/semver Completed in 3ms
npm timing build:link Completed in 4ms
npm info run node-sass@6.0.1 install node_modules/node-sass node-gyp rebuild
npm info run node-sass@6.0.1 install { code: 0, signal: null }
npm timing build:run:install:node_modules/node-sass Completed in 104719ms

另外一个问题

为了更深入了解 node-sass 写了一个js脚本用来测试node-sass的使用,脚本内容很简单,仅仅引用了node-sass模块,执行的时候报错,提示找不到 vendor 目录。

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$ node test.js                        
node:internal/fs/utils:343
throw err;
^

Error: ENOENT: no such file or directory, scandir '/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/vendor'
at Object.readdirSync (node:fs:1380:3)
at Object.getInstalledBinaries (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/extensions.js:134:13)
at foundBinariesList (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/errors.js:20:15)
at foundBinaries (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/errors.js:15:5)
at Object.module.exports.missingBinary (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/errors.js:45:5)
at module.exports (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/binding.js:15:30)
at Object.<anonymous> (/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/lib/index.js:13:35)
at Module._compile (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:1095:14)
at Object.Module._extensions..js (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:1124:10)
at Module.load (node:internal/modules/cjs/loader:975:32) {
errno: -2,
syscall: 'scandir',
code: 'ENOENT',
path: '/Users/shiqiang/Projects/www.edulinks.cn/test-blog/node_modules/node-sass/vendor'
}

进入到 node_modules/node-sass 下面看确实没有 vendor 目录,

按照官方的指引执行下面的命令

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$ cd node-sass
$ npm install
$ node scripts/build -f # use -d switch for debug release
# if succeeded, it will generate and move
# the binary in vendor directory.

因祸得福

本次熟悉了几个命令

  • npm config set/get 设置npm的配置或读取npm的配置
  • npm config get cache 查看npm缓存目录的位置,默认位于 /Users/shiqiang/.npm/_cacache
  • npm config get prefix 查看全局npm安装的路径,查到之后可以在 ${prefixUrl}/lib/node_modules/npm 下看到npm的源码,例如想要查看 npm install 的代码,可以在 /usr/local/lib/node_modules/npm/lib/install.js 中看到
  • npm config ls -l 查看npm的详细配置
  • npm ls -g 查看npm安装的全局包
  • npm outdated -g 查看需要更新的全局包,不加参数表示查看本地需要更新的包
  • npm uninstall -g hexo 卸载全局安装的包
  • npm update -g hexo 更新全局安装的包
  • npm install /local/plugin/path 可以本地安装npm包
  • npm install --save github:cocowool/hexo-renderer-sass --verbose 可以从github上安装相关的依赖包
  • npm install --verbose 可以看到安装过程的详细信息
  • npm cache clean --force 强制清理本地缓存

Sass

在今年2月份的时候,还写了一篇介绍SASS的文章《SASS学习笔记》,这篇中仅记录了语法方面的知识,没有介绍安装使用方面的内容。

翻阅了sass的官方网站,发现sass安装有两种模式,一种是本地命令的方式,在Mac中可以通过brew install sass 进行安装,安装完成后执行下面命令可以确认安装是否成功。

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$ sass --version
1.35.2 compiled with dart2js 2.13.4

也可以使用 npm install -g sass 命令来安装JS版本的sass。

参考资料

  1. node-gyp的作用是什么
  2. macOS 下 node-gyp rebuild failed 的解决方法
  3. Apple Developer Downloads
  4. Installation notes for macOS Catalina
  5. GIthub node-gyp
  6. node-sass
  7. sass lang
  8. Github node-gyp
  9. npm 安装github包的方式

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